Decades of U.S. sanctions have badly hampered Iran’s efforts to address environmental challenges that could alter the country’s economic, social and political landscape.

Air and water pollution, desertification, land degradation, climate change and biodiversity loss are among the pressing environmental challenges in Iran.

Although the impact of U.S. sanctions has been widely documented, very little has been said about the myriad challenges it poses to the already deteriorating environment in Islamic Republic.

Researchers at the Center for Environmental Policy at Imperial College London acknowledge that sanctions do not independently cause environmental degradation in a targeted nation, but the secondary

Read more: US sanctions cause environmental crisis in Iran