Mammad Amin Resulzadeh, the founder of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan that its independence was declared on May 28, 1918, is being commemorated on the 66th anniversary of his death.
Resulzadeh’s memory is being honored both in Azerbaijan and Turkey, where he spent a part of his life.
Being the beacon of hope for the independence movement of Azerbaijan in 20th century with his expression ‘Once raised, the flag never falls!’, Resulzadeh played a key role in the formation of modern Azerbaijani identity.
The first and only president of Azarbaijan Democratic Republic was born in Novhani village of Azerbaijan’s capital Baku in 1884. He received his education at the Russian-Muslim Secondary School and then at the Technical College in Baku.
He was interested in politics from a young age, worked in some political parties and organizations against the Tsarist regime, and wrote in various newspapers and magazines.
In the face of the pressure of the Tsarist regime, he went to Iran in 1909 where he worked as a journalist and engaged in politics.
When the constitutional monarchy in Iran was terminated he met with repression and had to go to Turkey in 1911.
In 1913, Resulzade later returned to Baku and became a member of Musavat (Equality) Party and he was elected chairman of Musavat Party.
One year later, Resulzadeh was unanimously elected the head of Azerbaijani National Council, which was formed by Azerbaijani intellectuals.
On May 28, 1918, the Azerbaijani National Council, headed by Rasulzadeh, declared the independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.
The same year, Ottoman and newly formed Azerbaijan signed an agreement of friendship and cooperation. Rasulzadeh inked the agreement on behalf of Azerbaijan.
A delegation headed by Resulzadeh came to Istanbul on June 18, 1918 to attend the conference organized for the introduction of the newly established Caucasusian states.
Later in 1918, the Islamic Army of the Caucasus took Baku from Armenian gangs and Bolsheviks. Enver Pasha, then minister of war, personally conveyed the message that Baku was liberated from Armenian gangs.
The Republic collapsed in 1920, Resulzadeh left Baku and directed resistance against Soviet Russia in Lahij. Soviet Russian army crushed the rebellion.
Resulzadeh was arrested and brought to Moscow. Although Stalin wanted Rasulzadeh to collaborate with Soviet Russia, Rasulzadeh refused Stalin’s offer and left Soviets.
For the rest of his life, Rasulzadeh lived in exile, in France, Finland, Poland, and Germany. He continued to publish various newspapers, magazines that are anti-Soviet Russia. He tried to make the world know that Azerbaijan was under Soviet occupation.
In 1947, Resulzadeh settled down in Turkey. He became a citizen of Turkey under a cabinet decree, then he established Azerbaijan Culture Association in Ankara. He continued to write many books, held conferences to expose the situation in Azerbaijan to the world.
Mammad Amin Resulzadeh died on March 6 in Ankara and was buried in Cebeci Asri cemetery in the Turkish capital.
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