European politics saw countless campaign promises in 2019. A new European Parliament was elected in May and a new European Commission entered into office in December.

But despite alterations in the political landscape of EU institutions, divisions in key policy areas remained profound among the member states, and 2020 will test whether the EU can overcome these disagreements, unlock the stalled decision-making process and start delivering on long-awaited reforms. But the 2021-2027 multi-annual financial framework and ambitious European Green Deal could deepen those divisions.

Read more: 20 challenges awaiting EU in 2020